Positions Statement














BELIEVING that the moral issue of abortion is more than a question of the freedom of a woman to control the reproductive functions of her own body; and

BELIEVING that it is rather a question of those circumstances under which a human being may perform the sovereign right of taking the LIFE of another; and

BELIEVING that ALL LIFE is an expression of God’s love, so that neither the life of the unborn fetus nor the mother may be taken lightly; and

BELIEVING that God Himself, in Holy Writ, has told us what our attitude must be towards the unborn through specifically stating in Psalms 139:13, 16, and in Luke 1:31, 32, 33, 41, that He conferred Divine blessing upon unborn infants and provides penalties for actions which result in the death of unborn babies;

The INTERNATIONAL PENTECOSTAL CHURCH OF CHRIST issues this statement of its basic position addressing this subject; and

CONDEMNS in the strongest possible terms the role and influence of the Federal Judiciary which has made it legal to terminate a fetus for no better reason than personal convenience or sociological considerations up to and including the last trimester of pregnancy:

AFFIRMS our conviction that abortion on demand for social adjustment or to solve economic problems is morally wrong, and expresses its firm opposition to any legislation that will legalize abortion for those reasons;

ASSURES the Christian community that at the same time we recognize the necessity for therapeutic abortions to safeguard the health or life of the mother, as for example, the possibility of tubular pregnancies, which are considered by most doctors to be fatal unless terminated;

CALL UPON the committed Christian who may experience other pregnancies, such as those resulting from rape and incest, which may require deliberate termination, to arrive at the decision only after there has been extensive medical, psychological and religious counseling of the most sensitive kind realizing the final decision remains that of the woman, and when such determination has been reached, the individuals involved should not be subjected to censure; and

CHALLENGES our pastors and church leaders to speak out strongly in favor of the Biblical standard that upholds the sanctity of life.   (Back to Top)


Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has become the number one public health problem in the world. Currently, there is no cure for AIDS; the disease is always fatal. The Surgeon General of the United States of America has called AIDS “the most serious matter any health official of any nation has ever faced.”

Although there is the urgent need for more education regarding AIDS, education without reference to values ignores the moral dimensions of the problem. Government or private sector programs that subtly advance the idea that AIDS is not anyone’s fault — the virus is to blame — serve only to remove the moral element of the problem by pretending there is none. While there are innocent victims of the disease, the fact remains that in the United States two groups of individuals are the primary victims — homosexual men and drug addicts who share needles. The nexus between immoral behavior and the spread of the AIDS virus is self-evident.

Furthermore, AIDS is first and foremost a public health concern, not a civil rights issue. Hence, any proposed legislation that would confer special “civil rights” on persons afflicted with AIDS, but threaten the health of others, is totally unacceptable. We believe appropriate legislation regarding AIDS would require testing of high risk groups and reporting of those with the disease to the public health officials on the same basis as other sexually transmitted diseases, and that’s why sometimes is better to avoid sexual contact if you’re not sure and use a good remote control vibrator instead.

But legislation and the best efforts of public health officials have its limits. Our Christian faith offers not only hope for the victims of AIDS, but a realistic way of life that will curb the spread of this tragic disease. For this reason, the International Pentecostal Church of Christ (IPCC) calls upon their constituents to witness the hope that God has provided in Jesus Christ. He is our ultimate source of confidence — not human wisdom or medical science.

We urge therefore, that Christian compassion, not judgment, be extended to victims of AIDS. Judgment is in the hands of our Heavenly Father, who is just and merciful. Seldom has there been such an opportunity to witness of Gods’ forgiveness and salvation.   (Back to Top)


Why have holiness and Pentecostal churches advocated abstinence concerning the use of alcohol, tobacco, and narcotics (drugs)? Why not allow moderation?

First Corinthians 6:19, 20 has historically been held in high regard by holiness and Pentecostal Christians. ou not know that your body is a temple of the Holy Spirit, who is in you, whom you have received from God? You are not your own; you were bought at a price. Therefore honor God with your body.䨩s and other passages warning against drunkenness have been considered sufficient reason for advocating complete abstinence from the use of alcohol, tobacco, or narcotics. Not only is the human body the temple of the Holy Spirit, which is not to be defiled; but there are other reasons for complete abstinence: (1) contemporary society is plagued with the destructive consequences of these three addictive substances and (2) even moderate use of the substances, especially alcohol and drugs, leads too often to destructive addictive habits.

Alcohol. The Scriptures speak often of the destructive power of alcohol. Noahलunkenness brought shame to his family (Gen. 9:20-27). Lotलunkenness resulted in an incestuous relationship with his two daughters (Gen. 19:30-38). An inebriated Xerxes sought to humiliate Queen Vashti publicly (Est. 1:9-22). The consumption of alcohol impairs judgment, inflames passions, and invites violence (Lev. 10:8-11; Prov. 20:1, 23:29-35, 31:4,5).

Alcoholism and the depression associated with it often leads to a breakdown of moral inhibitions, indiscreet or violent behavior, or loss of consciousness (drunkenness). Long-term drinking can terminally damage liver, pancreas, brain, or heart. Binge drinking on university campuses has caused instant death. It is estimated there are 14 million problem drinkers in the United States. Half of the fatal automobile accidents are caused by alcohol-impaired drivers. The annual cost of alcohol-related accidents, illness, violent crime, and loss of work time is estimated to exceed 100 billion dollars.

Illegal Drugs. Though drug use is not specifically mentioned in the Bible, its impact on the drug user and on society far exceeds the evil results of alcohol abuse. The addictive nature of certain drugs is so powerful that a single episode can hook an individual for life. Furthermore, the irreversible physical damage to oneÍŠ organs and mental capacities makes drugs extremely dangerous. The greatest danger is the all-consuming control of one଩fe, constantly interrupting oneযcus on work and destroying personal relationships and spiritual well-being. Beyond the personal toll of drug addiction is the disastrous burden placed on families and society.

Alcohol and illegal drug use are well documented factors in domestic violence, road and work rage, child abuse, suicide, and a variety of other socially destructive behaviors. Alcoholism and drug addiction present a national crisis threatening to destroy the fabric of our society. Paul admonished us to, å´ this mind be in you, which was also in Christ Jesus…萨ilip. 2:5 – KJV) We can be sure that Christ never allowed his mind to be impaired by the intake of substances.

Tobacco. While smoking and chewing tobacco does not impair oneવdgment nor carry many of the relational side effects of alcohol and illegal drugs, tobacco has now proved to be a primary health concern. Yet young people year after year are becoming hooked on the habit through effective ad campaigns that deceptively associate smoking with maturity and popularity.

For many years the surgeon general of the United States has warned society of the dangers of smoking, even to the point of forcing tobacco companies to place the warning on their products. But not until the casualties of mouth and lung cancer and addiction to tobacco began to increase did people take the warning seriously. When it became evident that non-smokers were becoming victims of diseases caused by inhaling second-hand tobacco smoke, then society began mounting major opposition to the use of tobacco. While medical studies in recent years have shown conclusively that smoking is the leading cause of lung cancer, the church has long opposed the use of tobacco because it is a habit that is harmful to a Christian͊ testimony as well as to a Christianࢯdy, which is the temple of the Holy Spirit.

With these realities about alcohol, tobacco, and drug use, the argument for abstinence is well established. The Christian is called to a higher standard of self-control and self-denial concerning those things not beneficial to his physical and spiritual well being. To argue for any level of 拉rate use裂alcohol, narcotics, or tobacco is to be insensitive to the weight of Scripture and the present perils of our society. Christians realize the pressing need for a pure testimony before our world. As the apostle Paul said, ൲ge you … in view of Godà­¥rcy, to offer your bodies as living sacrifices, holy and pleasing to God詳 is your spiritual act of worship. Do not conform any longer to the pattern of this world, but be transformed by the renewing of your mind. Then you will be able to test and approve what Godà·©ll isé³ good, pleasing and perfect willè’¯mans 12:1, 2).

The use of alcohol, narcotics, and tobacco mentioned above exact a heavy toll, not only on the addicted person, but also on all of society. Drug abuse can make an addict incapable of being a productive individual in the larger society, thus increasing the financial burden on the rest of society. Medical treatment for injuries and illnesses caused by the addictions further consumes resources that could be put to much better use. And as drug abuse often leads to criminal activity, society pays a double cost in added insurance and law enforcement costs. We call upon all of society to fight these addictive substances used by Satan to keep individuals in bondage to his power over their lives. We also call upon all International Pentecostal Church of Christ Churches to reaffirm our teachings on these addictive substances.


The above statement is based upon our common understanding of scriptural teaching.

All Scripture quotations are from the New International Version (NIV) unless otherwise specified.

Permission to adapt position papers has been granted by the Assemblies of God to the International Pentecostal Church of Christ.   (Back to Top)


Apostles and Prophets
Modern church statisticians cite the phenomenal growth of the Pentecostal movement and report that Pentecostals and charismatics now make up the second largest Christian group in the world. Pentecostals stand in awe of what God has done and attribute such amazing expansion to their simple trust in the supernatural power of the Holy Spirit, which continues to be at work in the church today.

The rapid advance of the Pentecostal revival has also been accompanied by a new openness to the gifts of the Spirit. The evangelical world increasingly has turned from cessationism, the belief gifts of the Spirit ceased at the end of the New Testament era, to an understanding that New Testament gifts of the Holy Spirit are vital for ministry today.

With the restoration of the miraculous gifts to the Church has also come the question of whether God is restoring the five-fold ministry of Ephesians 4:11: ä ·as he who gave some to be apostles, some to be prophets, some to be evangelists, and some to be pastors and teachers.ã°¡n style=”vertical-align: super”>1 Bible scholars differ on whether the gifts of pastor and teacher are separate in Ephesians 4 (yielding a total of five), or whether a better translation might be nd some to be pastor-teachers튉 (yielding a total of four). Greek grammar would seem to dictate four, but the New Testament often discusses pastoral and teaching roles separately. However, the best designation for ministry is neither fivefold nor fourfold but manifold. Ephesians 4:12 gives to all saints the work of ministry, while 1 Corinthians 12:28-30 and Romans 12:6-8 provide aspects of ministry beyond the designations in Ephesians 4:11, 12.

Relatively few questions are raised about the validity of contemporary evangelists, pastors, and teachers. However, there are a number of voices in the church today calling for the restoration of apostles and prophets, thinking these offices are the key to continued growth and vitality. The issue is important, and this paper is an effort to seek scriptural guidance.

The Apostolic Church
Some advocate the recognition of contemporary apostles and use the term apostolic. They believe church bodies that do so have moved closer to the New Testament ideal of ministry.

Historically, the adjective apostolic has been used to signify (1) church bodies that attempt to trace a succession of their clergy back to the original 12 apostles, as do the Catholic and Episcopal churches; (2) Oneness, or Jesus-Only, Pentecostal churches, who since the early 20th century have used the description ௳tolic Faith谲eviously used by Trinitarian Pentecostals such as Charles F. Parham and William J. Seymour) to designate their distinctive doctrines; (3) churches that claim God has raised up present-day apostles in their midst (巠Apostolicᮤ 鶥fold㨵rches); or (4) churches, including most Protestant groups, that claim to be apostolic because they teach what the apostles taught; that is, New Testament doctrine. Therefore, most Christian denominations think of themselves, in one sense or another, as apostolic.

Pentecostal churches believe they are apostolic because (1) they teach what the apostles taught, and (2) they share in the power of the apostles through the baptism in and fullness of the Holy Spirit, who empowers their lives and ministries. They believe what matters is not a contemporary apostolic office but apostolic doctrine and power.

The New Testament Apostles
The origin of the apostolic office is traced in the Gospels to Jesus. The Gospel of Mark reads, ꥳus] appointed twelve峩gnating them apostles衴 they might be with him and that he might send them out to preach and to have authority to drive out demons荡rk 3:14, 15). Matthew and Luke contain similar attributions (cf. Matthew 10:2; Luke 6:13). The number 12 seems to have had significance, so the most common title for this group in the Gospels is 襠Twelve⡴her than 襠Apostles裦. Matthew 26:14, 20, 47; Mark 4:10; 6:7; 9:35; Luke 8:1; 9:1; 18:31; John 6:67; 20:24). The designation 襠Twelveᬳo continued in the life of the Early Church through the writings of Luke (Acts 6:2) and the apostle Paul (1 Corinthians 15:5). In addition, Jesus himself is called by the writer to the Hebrews 襠apostle and high priest whom we confess,舥brews 3:1).

The word apostle comes from the Greek apostolos2 and may be translated by such terms as delegate, envoy, messenger, or agent.3 Since Jesus probably spoke Hebrew or Aramaic rather than Greek, it is possible the Hebrew/Aramaic shaliach also means much the same as apostolos. This is the actual word used by Jesus and His earliest followers and provides much of the conceptual background. The rabbis of Jesus䡹 regarded it as an important legal principle: à­¡nÍŠ agent (shaliach) is like unto himself.ã°¡n style=”vertical-align: super”>4 This meant if a manࡧent made a deal, it was the same as the man himself making the deal. The modern concept of power of attorney is very similar.

When it comes to apostles or other kinds of agents, it is of crucial importance whom the agent represents. The Gospels make it clear the apostles were appointed by Jesus to act on His behalf. Mark͊ tersely stated record of their initial commission is 衴 they might be with him and that he might send them out to preach and to have authority to drive out demons荡rk 3:14, 15). It has to do with personal fellowship with Jesus, preaching the good news of the kingdom of God on Jesus⥨alf, and participation in the power of Jesus to cast out demons. Jesus apparently sent them out early in the Galilean ministry with instructions to preach and heal the sick (cf. Matthew 10:5-14; Mark 6:7-11; Luke 9:1-5). Like the Seventy dispatched later, their immediate scope of ministry was to 襠lost sheep of Israel荡tthew 10:6).

The Apostles and Pentecost
The commission of the Twelve was dramatically expanded following the death and resurrection of Jesus. In Johnǯspel, Jesus anticipated that those who had faith in Him would do ⥡ter things䨡n He had done by asking in His name (John 14:12-14). The Counselor, identified as the Holy Spirit and the Spirit of truth, who was 鴨䨥m during the time of His earthly ministry, would soon be them (14:16, 17). The Spirit would also teach them all things and remind them of everything He had said to them (14:26). John noted that Jesus appeared to the 鳣iplesᦴer His resurrection and said, ᳠the Father has sent me, I am sending you.ᮤ with that he breathed on them and said, 壥ive the Holy Spirit. If you forgive anyone his sins, they are forgiven; if you do not forgive them, they are not forgivenਊohn 20:21-23). Luke makes it clear Jesus ८ed䨥 minds of 襠Eleven and those with them貴:33) to rstand the Scriptures䯠the end that 襠Christ [would] suffer and rise from the dead on the third day, and repentance and forgiveness of sins [would] be preached in his name to all nations, beginning at Jerusalem茵ke 24:45-47). Jesus then reminded the disciples they were tay in the city [i.e., Jerusalem] until [they had] been clothed with power from on high貴:49).

This promise was so important that Luke recorded it again in Acts 1:4 with an explanatory word from Jesus: ﲠJohn baptized with water, but in a few days you will be baptized with the Holy Spirit튉 (1:5). The reason for the promise is couched in Jesus篲ds, 崠 you will receive power when the Holy Spirit comes on you; and you will be my witnesses in Jerusalem, and in all Judea and Samaria, and to the ends of the earth聣ts 1:8). The promise was fulfilled in the descent of the Spirit at Pentecost (Acts 2:4) and identified in Peterలophetic message as the ᳴ days穦t of GodӰirit enabling all his ﮳,㤡ughters,ᮤ 岶ants, both men and women䯠⯰hesy聣ts 2:14-17).

Although earlier trained, called, and commissioned by the Lord Jesus, the apostles needed the baptism in the Holy Spirit as the final preparation for their mission. They were granted spiritual giftings and empowerment required for the apostolic office. Previously anxious and insecure, they were transformed and energized by the Holy Spirit.5

The apostles began to speak as those who were 鬬ed with the Holy Spirit聣ts 4:8) and were instrumental in others receiving the gift of the Spirit (8:14-17; 10:44-46; 19:6). When Paul was converted and called to apostolic ministry, he also received the gift of the Spirit and was similarly transformed (9:17). Barnabas was said to be 嬬 of the Holy Spirit and faith豱:24). The Holy Spirit guided the mission activities of the apostles, sovereignly selecting Paul and Barnabas (13:2) and sending them on their way (13:4). Later the Spirit prevented Paul and his companions from entering the province of Asia and Bythinia but directed them toward Troas and Macedonia (16:6-10). Paul was the recipient of prophetic guidance by Spirit-directed prophets as to his fate upon his return to Jerusalem (20:22, 23). Whatever the natural ability of these early apostles, the genius of their ministry is found in the power and wisdom of the Spirit given to them.

The Place of the Twelve
The opening chapter of Acts reflects a concern to maintain the number of the Twelve. Peter and the other members of the original Twelve, with the 120, looked to the Scriptures and determined that the vacancy created by the defection and death of Judas should be filled. It was important that the full complement of 12 be maintained for the effusion of the Spirit. Luke had previously recorded the promise of Jesus to the Twelve: ࣯nfer on you a kingdom, just as my Father conferred one on me, so that you may eat and drink at my table in my kingdom and sit on thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel茵ke 22:29, 30). The importance of maintaining 12 apostles as a symbol of the 12 tribes of Israel is unmistakable. The apostolate was to be intact for the coming of the Spirit and the launching of a fully equipped church on its worldwide mission.

The way the vacancy was filled is highly instructive. Jesus had personally appeared and given î³´ructions through the Holy Spirit to the apostles he had chosen聣ts 1:2). Two qualifying issues stand out: (1) personal commissioning by the Lord, and (2) thorough familiarity with the teachings of Jesus. Careful attention was given to both in Peterà°²oposal. Any candidate had to have been with them for Jesuså®´ire ministry, 姩nning from Johnࢡptism튉 (Acts 1:22). Two qualified candidates, ï³¥ph called Barsabbas (also known as Justus) and Matthias,祲e presented and prayer was offered. 襮 they cast lots, and the lot fell to Matthias; so he was added to the eleven apostles聣ts 1:26).6 After Pentecost, however, there was no effort to replace any of the original 12 apostles nor to perpetuate the number 12 (cf. Acts 12:2).

The Special Case of the Apostle Paul
Paul೴atus as an apostle is unique. He was neither a member of the Twelve nor present for Christయst-Resurrection appearances; his calling as an apostle came in a later and separate vision of the risen Lord. Recorded three times in Acts (9:1-19; 22:4-16; 26:9-18) and often intimated in his letters (Galatians 1:12), the account of Paul࣯nversion demonstrates the authenticity and power of his call to be an apostle of Jesus Christ. Like the Twelve, he recognized the apostolic office was conferred in the personal call of Christ through post-Resurrection appearances (1 Corinthians 15:5-7). Paul acknowledged he was 㠮.. one abnormally born [ektroma7]튉 (1 Corinthians 15:8). The word is usually used for miscarriages. But rather than Paul saying he was ﲮ宮aturally early, he is saying that as a witness to the Resurrection and as an apostle he was ﲮ宮aturally late. His apostolic calling was thus without parallel and made his credentials vulnerable to attack from enemies who sought to discredit him (1 Corinthians 9:1, 2; 2 Corinthians 12:11, 12).

Despite the unusual nature of his encounter with Christ, Paul did not consider his apostolic status to be less than that of the other apostles. They had seen the resurrected Lord; so had he. He regularly appealed to his having seen å³µs our Lordè±  Corinthians 9:1). While he referred to himself as 襠least of the apostles,á°°arently because of his earlier persecution of the Church, he ﲫed harder than all of themè± Corinthians 15:9, 10). Though insisting on a continuity of the message (cf. 1 Corinthians 15:3), he nonetheless distinguished his apostolic authority from the other apostles, even to the point of a public rebuke to Peter (Galatians 1:11-2:21). To his critics at Corinth he pointed out, य not think I am in the least inferior to those å°¥r-apostlesì³°an style=”vertical-align: super”>8 (2 Corinthians 11:5; 12:11) and rehearsed his Jewish heritage (11:22), hardships (11:23-33), and his å²°assingly great revelationsè±²:1-7). He reminded the Corinthians, 䝨e things that mark an apostle駮s, wonders and miracleså²¥ done among you with great perseveranceè² Corinthians 12:12).

Apostles of Christ
Paulà³¥nse of his own calling is reflected in the introduction to most of his letters: ᵬ … an apostle of Christ Jesusè±  Corinthians 1:1; cf. 2 Corinthians 1:1; Galatians 1:1; Ephesians 1:1; Colossians 1:1, et al.). The letters of Peter begin similarly: å´¥r, an apostle of Jesus Christè± Peter 1:1; cf. 2 Peter 1:1). Paul used this designation in the text of 1 Thessalonians: 㠍 apostles of Christ we could have been a burden to you…貺6). Jude 17 refers to what 襠apostles of our Lord Jesus Christ foretold.䨥se references make it appear that the title ௳tle of Christ (Jesus Christ/Lord Jesus Christ/Christ Jesus)硳 standard nomenclature for all the apostles Christ had personally appeared to and appointed. It is almost always this group to whom the title ௳tleé³ applied in the New Testament.

Apostles of the Churches
Scholars occasionally point out a distinction between the ௳tles of Christᮤ the ௳tles of the Churches.ã°¡n style=”vertical-align: super”>9 Paul spoke of unnamed ⯴hers稯 are å°²esentatives [apostoloi] of the churches and an honor to Christè² Corinthians 8:23). He also wrote to the Philippians about à¡°hroditus … who is also your messenger [apostolon], whom you sent to take care of my needs貺25). These references provide ample evidence the early churches did use the word apostle from time to time for other than those who had witnessed the Resurrection. However, the term is used in these cases in its generic sense of dispatching representatives on an official mission on behalf of the senders. For that reason, English translations of the Bible normally render the word apostolos in the two instances above as å³³engerï² å°²esentative.ã°¡n style=”vertical-align: super”>10

False Apostles
Not all persons in the New Testament era who called themselves apostles or were accorded that status by star-struck followers were, in fact, apostles. Just as the Old Testament had its false prophets, so the New Testament had its false apostles. Much of Paul೥cond letter to the Corinthians reflects this very issue. Teachers, possibly itinerant Hellenistic Jews from the church at Jerusalem, had come to Corinth apparently with letters of commendation. They seem to have boasted of equality with, or even superiority to, Paul in an effort to wrest the leadership of the church away from him. Thus his references to such issues as 崴ers of recommendation負 Corinthians 3:1), his appearance and speech (10:10), 襠one who commends himself豰:18), his Jewish heritage (11:22), his extensive suffering on behalf of the church (11:23-33), and his visions and revelations (12:7)쬠seem to have been an effort to deal with the threat.

Paul identified such people as ᬳe apostles, deceitful workmen, masquerading as apostles of Christ負Corinthians 11:13). Jesus himself commended the church in Ephesus because they 峴ed those who claim to be apostles but are not, and have found them false튉 (Revelation 2:2). These references and others make it clear that many who either claimed for themselves the title of ௳tleﲠhad the title wrongly conferred upon them by others were circulating among the early Christian churches. Discernment was necessary. Paul called for careful evaluation of spiritual phenomena: ot put out the Spirit঩re; do not treat prophecies with contempt. Test everything. Hold on to the good豠Thessalonians 5:19-21).

Apostolic Succession
A crucial issue is whether the apostolic office is to be passed on as an institutionalized office of the church. It is clear from both Acts and the letters of the New Testament that certain offices were instituted and maintained. For example, the apostles led the church in the selection of seven men, often called 塣ons䨯ugh that noun is not in the text, to administer the charitable ministries of the church (Acts 6:3). Early in the Acts record the Church, probably operating with familiar Jewish models, is observed to have elders who are functioning in leadership roles along with the apostles (Acts 11:30; 15:2; 16:4). As Paul and Silas established missionary churches, they were careful to appoint 줥rs谲esbyteros) for the leadership of those churches (Acts 14:23). Paul also summoned 줥rs谲esbyteros) of the church at Ephesus and then addressed them as 楲seers襰iskopos) who were also to be 襰herds튉 (poimaino), or ᳴ors,裂the church of God (Acts 20:17, 28).

The letter to the church at Philippi indicates the presence of 楲seers襰iskopos) and 塣ons褩akonos) among them. The pastoral letters, usually assumed to have been written somewhat later, reveal great concern for the appointment of carefully qualified elders/overseers and deacons (1 Timothy 3:1-12; Titus 1:3-9). As can be seen, the names for the office are somewhat flexible and interchangeable. Nevertheless, it is certainly accurate to say the New Testament provides頳uch names, qualifications, and selectionﲠthe careful appointment and continuation in office of such leaders as overseers, elders, and deacons.

It is also clear that while the apostles (with the elders) were established leaders in the Early Church, there was no provision for their replacement or continuation. To be sure, with the defection of Judas from his apostolic office, the Eleven sought divine guidance to fill the gap. Other apostles also emerged, including Paul who in his first letter to the Corinthians gave insight into their selection. After Christಥsurrection He appeared to the Twelve and later appeared to more than 鶥 hundred of the brothers at the same time…. Then he appeared to James, then to all the apostles, and last of all he appeared to me also, as to one abnormally born튉 (1 Corinthians 15:6-8, emphasis added). Thus Paul seems to limit the office of apostle to those who had actually seen the risen Lord in the 40 days after His resurrection and to himself as having seen Him in a dramatic vision on the road to Damascus (Acts 9:1-9). There is some uncertainty about the exact number and identity of the apostles. However, besides the Twelve, the New Testament text appears to clearly designate such persons as Paul, James the brother of Jesus (1 Corinthians 15:7; Galatians 1:19), Barnabas (Acts 14:14), Andronicus and Junias (probably a woman) who were å´³tanding among the apostlesè’¯mans 16:7).

It is instructive, however, that nowhere in the New Testament after the replacement of Judas is any attention given to a so-called apostolic succession. No attempt was made to replace James son of Zebedee (Johnࢲother), executed by Herod (Acts 12:2). Other than the original appointments by Christ himself, there is nothing concerning the appointment of apostles. And apart from the criteria set for the selection of Matthias (Acts 1:21-26) and the criteria implied in the actions of Jesus and the account of Paul (1 Corinthians 15:3-11), there are no directions for making such an appointment. By contrast, there are clear qualifications and instructions for the appointment of elders/overseers and deacons (1 Timothy 3:1-13; Titus 1:5-9). It seems strange that apostles of Jesus Christ, concerned about faithful preservation of their message (cf. 2 Timothy 2:2), would provide for the appointment of overseers/elders while ignoring their own succession if such were indeed to be maintained.

In fact, there are certain exegetical hints the apostles of Jesus Christ are not to have successors. In 1 Corinthians 15:8, Paul listed all the Resurrection and post-Resurrection appearances of Christ and noted á³´ of all he appeared to me.稩le some disagree, the statement is most commonly understood to mean Paul looked upon himself as the last apostle to whom Christ appeared.11 If this is the correct understanding, only the Twelve whom Jesus personally called and those He commissioned in His post-Resurrection appearances made up His original apostles. Apostles are named first among the offices of the church (1 Corinthians 12:28) and the ministry gifts of Ephesians 4:11 because they are foundational, not necessarily because they are continuous leaders in the church. The Ephesians 4:11 passage must be interpreted in the context of the Ephesians letter itself, wherein Paul had already described the church as 婬t on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, with Christ Jesus himself as the chief cornerstoneè…°hesians 2:20), and the form of leadership instituted by Paul in the Ephesian church itself and the other churches he founded (Acts 14:23). Writing to Timothy at Ephesus, Paul entrusts the oversight of the church to 줥rsè³¹nonymous with bishop or pastor or overseer) and deacons, not apostles and prophets. When he bids an emotional farewell to the leaders of the Ephesian church, which he himself had established, his meeting is with the elders (not apostles or prophets), to whom he entrusts the responsibility of bishop (or overseer) and pastor (or shepherd) (Acts 20:28).

It is difficult to escape the conclusion of Dietrich M쥲:  thing is certain. The New Testament never betrays any understanding of the apostolate as an institutionalized church office, capable of being passed on.ã°¡n style=”vertical-align: super”>12

The Authority of the Apostles
The authority of the apostles was modeled by the chief Apostle, the Lord Jesus Christ, who taught them that 襠Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve,荡rk 10:45). Jesus, on occasion, acted sharply and decisively against certain sins, such as the desecration of His Fatherਯuse (Mark 11:15-17; John 2:13-16) and the exploitative hypocrisy of the teachers of the Law and Pharisees (Matthew 23). However, He carefully avoided the trappings of political and institutional power and modeled extraordinary humility and patience for His apostles. His divine attributes were cloaked in human flesh and He was the exposition and example of His Father͊ word and work.

Even a cursory reading of the New Testament demonstrates the apostles of Christ possessed authority. The Early Church was formed around their teaching, which was in turn confirmed by the ﮤers and miraculous signs䨥y did (Acts 2:42, 43). They were the recognized spokesmen before the rulers (Acts 4:8ff.), and their authority was demonstrated in such events as the death of Ananias and Sapphira (Acts 5:1-11). In writing to the Corinthians, a church he founded, Paul threatened to come to them 鴨 a whip豠 Corinthians 4:21) and did not hesitate to give stern directions for discipline in a case of incest (1 Corinthians 5:1-5). Writing to the church in Rome, which he did not found, he stated his apostolic credentials (Romans 1:1), assumed the prerogative of imparting to them spiritual gifts (1:11), and planned to ﭥ in the full measure of the blessing of Christ豵:29). He laid out for their belief and practice the most systematic exposition of doctrinal and ethical truth in all of Scripture. He did not hesitate to give directions for their local ethical dilemmas such as relations between the weak and the strong (chapters 14, 15). Peter also, claiming apostolic standing, wrote authoritatively to apparently Gentile churches that he did not pioneer (1 Peter 1:1).

Some modern interpreters insist apostolic authority was merely local, not universal, and exercised only in churches the apostles founded.13 To be sure, apostles seem to have been aware of certain protocol in churches they did not pioneer (Romans 15:20; 1 Corinthians 3:10). However, they did cross geographical boundaries. The pattern of evidence throughout the New Testament indicates their authority was universal in doctrinal and ethical matters, binding in some sense upon all the churches. However, that authority must not be construed in political or bureaucratic terms. There is little evidence of their involvement in local administrative matters.

When they worked together, one of the apostles usually took the lead, as in Peterॡrly activity in Jerusalem and Paulऩrection of his missionary teams. However, in dealing with the practical and doctrinal problems of the churches, the apostles often exercised a shared leadership among themselves and with the elders, a group that appears to have been added quickly to the leadership rolls. For example, the Twelve called upon the church of Jerusalem to select the Seven (Acts 6). When the Jerusalem Council resolved the schismatic debate over whether the Gentiles should keep the Jewish law, the issue was decided by 襠apostles and elders聣ts 15:4, 6, 22). On this or some similar issue, even the two apostles Paul and Peter initially came to conflicting opinions (Galatians 2:11-14). James Dunn aptly observes, ௳tolic authority is exercised not over the Christian community, but within it; and the authority is exercised… ï ¥quip the saints for the work of their ministry, for the building up of Christࢯdyਅphesians 4:12).14

Since apostles were frequently mobile, local rule in the maturing churches seems to have been exercised largely by elders. In the Jerusalem church, the apostles were the sole authority figures early on (Acts 2:42; 4:37); but perhaps because of persecution and travel, they appear to have been less prominent over time. Peter reported the conversion of Cornelius and his household to the ௳tles and the brothers豱:1). The ௳tles and elders�e up the Jerusalem council (15:6). When Paul returned to Jerusalem after his third journey, he called on ᭥s, and all the elders貱:18). Elders were certainly key authority figures in Jerusalem, as seen in Acts, and elsewhere as seen in New Testament letters. The absence of apostles on Paulଡst visit to Jerusalem (Acts 21:18) is further evidence that as the Twelve dispersed, the Jerusalem church did not provide for further apostolic replacement as they had at the defection of Judas (Acts 1:12-26).

None of the New Testament letters are addressed to an apostle, as would be expected if each city had its own ruling apostle. One of the few letters that includes church officers in the title, Philippians, is addressed to 楲seers [episkopos] and deacons [diakonos]豺1)ﴠto a local or city apostle. There seems to be no concern to place recognized apostles in residence in the various churches or regions.

The Marks of an Apostle
Striving to protect the Corinthians from the seduction of ᬳe apostles,ࡵl pointed out characteristics (semeion, 駮,⠍ Corinthians 12:12) that identified a genuine apostle. From that context and the larger New Testament background, the following are apparent:

1. The first and most important mark of true apostles of Christ was that they had seen the risen Lord and been personally commissioned by Him as witnesses to His resurrection (Acts 1:21, 22; 1 Corinthians 9:1; 15:7, 8). They were thus appropriately called ௳tles of Christ.Ⲿ
2. The personal call and commission of the risen Christ had to be consummated in the baptism in the Holy Spirit (Acts 2:1-4 [for Paul, see Acts 9:1-17]), at which time the spiritual gift, or charisma, of apostleship was granted. This understanding is reflected, for example, in Paulà³´atements: ä ·as he who gave some to be apostles…è…°hesians 4:11) and ࢥcame a servant of this gospel by the gift of God৲ace given me through the working of his powerè…°hesians 3:7). The Spirit with His power and anointing set apostles first among the leaders of the church (1 Corinthians 12:28).

3. Apostles were supernaturally equipped for prophetic preaching and teaching. To illustrate, when the Spirit fell at Pentecost, the disciples spoke î ¯ther tongues as the Spirit enabled [apophthengomai] them聣ts 2:4). Confronted with the confused and contradictory opinions of the watching crowd, Peter 䯯d up with the Eleven, raised his voice and addressedè¡°ophthengomai) them (2:14) in a masterful explanation resulting in 3,000 conversions. The Greek verb apophthengomai is used to denote prophetic inspiration, which in this context is the immediate result of the Spirit८ablement.15 Paul reflected much of the same awareness: é ­essage and my preaching were not with wise and persuasive words, but with a demonstration of the Spirità°¯werè± Corinthians 2:4).

4. With the apostolic gift came miraculous spiritual gifts (1 Corinthians 12:8-10). 襠things that mark [semeia, 駮s࡮ apostle[16]駮s, wonders and miracles岥 done among you with great perseverance負 Corinthians 12:12). The Book of Acts attributes numerous miracles to Peter, Paul, and the other apostles (Acts 5:12; 9:32-43; 13:6-12; 14:3; 16:16-18; 19:11; 28:7-9). Paul evidently regarded such miraculous ministry as an essential mark of a true apostle. He also taught and preached among them 鴨 a demonstration of the Spirit͊ power㯠their ᩴh might not rest on men෩sdom, but on God͊ power豠Corinthians 2:4, 5).

5. The apostles were the authoritative teachers of the Early Church in both belief and practice. They were charged above all with the accuracy and purity of the gospel of Jesus Christ. As Paul wrote, ï² what I received I passed on to you as of first importance: that Christ died for our sins according to the Scriptures, that he was buried, that he was raised on the third day according to the Scripturesè± Corinthians 15:3, 4; cf. Acts 2:42; Romans 16:17; Galatians 1:8; Titus 1:9). The intent of their preaching and teaching is expressed in Ephesians 4:12, 13: ï ´hat the body of Christ may be built up… and become mature.䨥 apostolic doctrine became the content of the New Testament canon. The apostles were understood either to have written the canonical books or to have been the primary sources and guarantors of their inspired character.

6. Apostles were commissioned as missionaries and church builders. Those the New Testament speaks about did this successfully. The Great Commission (Matthew 28:16-20) was given specifically to the Eleven, perhaps in the company of the ï²¥ than five hundredè±  Corinthians 15:6). The missionary impulse breathes through the accounts of apostolic commissioning (cf. Luke 24:47; John 20:21; Acts 1:8; 9:15; 22:15; 26:17, 18; Galatians 1:15-17; et al.).

7. Suffering for Christೡke seems to have been a major mark of the apostolic office. Paul validated his ministry and armed the Corinthian church against the seduction of false apostles with a lengthy personal history of sufferings on behalf of the gospel. 衴 is why, for Christೡke, I delight in weaknesses, in insults, in hardships, in persecutions, in difficulties. For when I am weak, then I am strong負Corinthians 12:10). ﷠I rejoice in what was suffered for you, and I fill up in my flesh what is still lacking in regard to Christࡦflictions, for the sake of his body which is the church胯lossians 1:24).

8. Apostles were pastoral and relational. Paulଯve for his parishioners and his ministry associates flows through his letters. The warm and extended greetings at the conclusion of Romans are striking (16:1-16). He repeatedly uses parenting language (cf. 1 Corinthians 4:15, 2 Corinthians 12:14,15). On behalf of the Corinthians, he is 塬ous… with a godly jealousyè² Corinthians 11:2). To the Thessalonians, Paul wrote that he loved and cared for them gently as à­¯ther caring for her little childrenè±  Thessalonians 2:7). The language in the letters of Peter (1 Peter 4:12; 2 Peter 3:1, NRSV) and John (1 John 2:7, NRSV, et al.) emphasizes the same pastoral instincts.

The New Testament Prophets
⯰hetsá²¥ found immediately after ௳tlesé® one list of ministry gifts (Ephesians 4:11) and their activity is closely linked to that of apostles throughout the New Testament. Paul had a high view of their role: in the church God has appointed first of all apostles, second prophets…è± Corinthians 12:28). Further, the church is 婬t on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, with Christ Jesus himself as the chief cornerstoneè…°hesians 2:20). Along with the apostles, prophets were complementary gifts to the foundational era of the church.

The historical accounts in the New Testament affirm these complementary roles. New Testament prophets first appeared by name in Acts when a group, apparently residing in Jerusalem, went to Antioch and one of their number, Agabus, accurately predicted the coming great famine (Acts 11:27-30). Antioch soon had its own group of resident prophetsᲮabas, Simeon, Lucius, Manaen, and Saul (Paul) (Acts 13:1). Two other Jerusalem leaders and prophets were chosen to bear the council letter to Antioch, Syria, and Cilicia, and along the way ᩤ much to encourage and strengthen the brothers聣ts 15:22, 32). On Paulಥturn to Jerusalem after the third missionary journey, he stayed at the house of Philip the evangelist, who ᤠfour unmarried daughters who prophesied,ᮤ we learn women were active and recognized as prophets. At that time Agabus made his way down from Jerusalem to Caesarea and prophesied that the Jews of Jerusalem would bind Paul and hand him over to the Gentiles (Acts 21:10, 11).

Paulଥtters, written earlier than the Book of Acts, indicate the presence of prophets in the churches he had established as well as those he did not (e.g., the church at Rome). For example, he provided instruction on their activities in Corinth (1 Corinthians 14:29-32), saying their prophecies were to be tested by apostolic doctrine (1 Corinthians 14:37). Women prophets were active in the church at Corinth (1 Corinthians 11:5, 6). The Romans were to exercise the gift of prophecy roportion䯠their faith (Romans 12:6). The Thessalonians were cautioned not to ⥡t prophecies with contempt豠Thessalonians 5:20). The Ephesians letter stated Paul൮derstanding that, with the apostles, the prophets were foundational to the church (Ephesians 2:20). In that capacity they were, with the apostles, recipients of divinely given revelation (Ephesians 3:5) and a ministry gift to the church (Ephesians 4:11). To Timothy, Paul noted a prophetic message had accompanied the laying on of hands by the elders (1 Timothy 4:14).

The Book of Revelation is apparently to be understood as a prophecy, thus according John prophetic status (Revelation 1:3). Revelation also says the church was to be on guard against false prophets, in this case 庥bel,稯 by their teaching and conduct perverted the apostolic gospel (Revelation 2:20).

These accounts make clear that (1) there were recognized groups of prophets in the early churches often closely associated with the apostles; (2) the apostles themselves (as Barnabas, Silas [both of whom on occasion appear to be recognized as apostles], Saul [Paul], and John) also functioned as prophets (Acts 13:1; 15:32; Revelation 1:3); (3) these prophets did travel on occasion from church to church; (4) both men and women were recognized as prophets; (5) prophets, while never appointed to ruling functions in their capacity as prophets like overseers/elders did exercise spiritual influence with the apostles and elders in the belief and practice of the Early Church; (6) the integrity of the prophet was maintained by authentic inspired utterance that was true to the Scriptures and apostolic doctrine; and (7) there is no provision for qualifying or appointing prophets as a part of a church leadership hierarchy for succeeding generations.

The Gift of Prophecy
While there were recognized prophets in the New Testament era, even more pervasive was the gift of prophecy that energized the apostolic church. The Old Testament prophet Joel, moved by God, prophesied, ÍŠ will pour out my Spirit on all people. Your sons and daughters will prophesy, your old men will dream dreams, your young men will see visions. Even on my servants, both men and women, I will pour out my Spirit in those days芯el 2:28, 29). Significantly, Peter, when explaining the Pentecost event and its evidential tongues, identified them with Joelà°²ediction of the outpouring of the Spirit and twice repeated that both sons and daughters, men and women, would prophesy (Acts 2:17, 18). Peterà³¥rmon was clearly a prophecy immediately inspired by the Spirit, as the verb 䤲essed [apophthengomai]聣ts 2:14), which means ï ³peak as a prophet,ã°¡n style=”vertical-align: super”>17 denotes. When one examines closely the witness to Christ given by the early Christian leaders in Acts, the prophetic impulse is apparentdoubtlessly intended by Luke. Peterà·¯rds to the crippled beggar (Acts 3:6), the temple crowds (Acts 3:12ff.), the Sanhedrin (Acts 4:8), and Ananias and Sapphira (Acts 5:1-11), to list a few, are filled with prophetic import. Stephen६oquence and power are prophetic (Acts 7). The impact of the preaching of Philip (Acts 8:4-8) and other unnamed believers (Acts 11:19-21) was likewise Spirit-enabled. And so it is throughout the Acts account.

While it is too much to say every utterance of a believer is a prophecy, nonetheless, the theme of Acts is that every believer receives the power of the Holy Spirit to be a prophetic witness to the risen Lord Jesus Christ (Acts 1:8). Interestingly, John noted, 襠testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecyè’¥velation 19:10). All believers are inducted into a universal ⯰hethoodã°¡n style=”vertical-align: super”>18 and are endowed with one or more spiritual gifts, many of which have directly to do with wise, instructive, and edifying utterances (Romans 12:6-8; 1 Corinthians 12:8-10; Ephesians 4:7-13; 1 Peter 4:10).

Paul makes it clear not every believer will be a prophet in terms of filling a recognized 榩ce,ﲬ perhaps, even being regularly used by the Spirit in that way (1 Corinthians 12:28, 29). The very identification of a separate gift of prophecy implies that. However, at the same time, he encourages all believers to 峩re… especially the gift of prophecyè± Corinthians 14:1), for the person who prophesies does so for the ä²¥ngthening, encouragement and comfortè± Corinthians 14:3) of others. There is no statute of limitations on the Spirit of prophecy. In the words of PeterÍŠ prophetic sermon, 襠promise is for you and your children and for all who are far offï² all whom the Lord our God will call聣ts 2:39).

The purpose of this paper has been to study the roles of apostles and prophets within the Ephesians 4:11, 12 ministry context and present findings both consistent with Scripture and relevant for this strategic time in the growth of the Pentecostal movement. The intent is not to be argumentative or polemical but to ᫥ every effort to keep the unity of the Spirit through the bond of peace튉 (Ephesians 4:3). With these considerations in mind, the following conclusions are offered:

1. The apostolic nature of the church is to be found in adherence to the Word of God, which has been faithfully transmitted by the apostles of Jesus Christ in their foundational role, and in vital participation in the life and ministry of the Holy Spirit, who baptized, gifted, and led the first apostles.

2. Since the New Testament does not provide guidance for the appointment of future apostles, such contemporary offices are not essential to the health and growth of the church, nor its apostolic nature.

3. While we do not understand it to be necessary, some church bodies may in good faith and careful biblical definition choose to name certain leaders apostles. The word ௳tle衰ostolos) is used in different ways in the New Testament: (1) for the Twelve disciples originally appointed by Jesus (and later Matthias); (2) for the Twelve plus Paul and a larger group (1 Corinthians 15:3-8) whose exact numbers are somewhat uncertain; and (3) for others such as Epaphroditus (Philippians 2:25) and the unnamed ⯴hersࡵl wrote about (2 Corinthians 8:23). Groups one and two, personally called and commissioned by the risen Lord, are often referred to in Scripture as ௳tles of Jesus Christᮤ are foundational apostles (Ephesians 2:20) with unique revelatory and authoritative roles in establishing the church and producing the New Testament. The third group, the ௳tles of the churches,祲e assigned specific roles and responsibilities as needed by the early churches. Contemporary apostles, of course, will not have seen or been commissioned by the risen Lord in the manner of the ௳tles of Jesus Christ, will they be adding their teachings to the canon of Scripture. Presumably they will demonstrate the other marks of an apostle taught in the New Testament.

4. The title of apostle should not be lightly granted or assumed. Historically, apostles have been persons of recognized spiritual stature, stalwart character, and great effectiveness in the work of the church. Paul෡rnings about 诳e who want an opportunity to be considered equal with us in the things they boast about,詳 assertion that 壨 men are false apostles, deceitful workmen, masquerading as apostles of Christ,ᮤ his further association of them with ᴡn [who] himself masquerades as an angel of light,負 Corinthians 11:12-14) are sobering孩nders that unfettered human pride in seeking church leadership can blind one to the machinations of the devil. Persons lacking character may attach the title of apostle to themselves in order to assert dominance and control over other believers, while leaving themselves unaccountable to the members in their care or the spiritual eldership of their own fellowship.

5. The function of apostle occurs whenever the church of Jesus Christ is being established among the unevangelized. As Pentecostals, we fervently desire a generation of men and women who will function apostolically: to take the gospel with signs following to people at home and abroad who have not yet heard or understood that 鸞so loved the world that he gave his one and only Son, that whoever believes in him shall not perish but have eternal life튉 (John 3:16).

6. Prophecy is an ongoing gift of the Holy Spirit that will always be broadly distributed throughout a holy and responsive church until Jesus comes. The Spirit sovereignly chooses and directs persons who are open and sensitive to His gifts and promptings and endows them variously with an array of verbal gifts. Paul admonished, שּׁow the way of love and eagerly desire spiritual gifts, especially the gift of prophecy豠Corinthians 14:1). Many persons of both sexes may be expected to exercise the gift of prophecy in various ways, as seen in the New Testament.

The New Testament does not make provisions for establishing the prophet in a hierarchical governing structure of the church; in fact, the content of prophecy itself should always be tested by and responsible to the superior authority of Scripture. However, the church should long for authentic prophecy with a message, which is relevant to contemporary needs and subject to the authority of Scripture.

Finally, the Ephesians 4:11, 12 gifts are both the historical and contemporary heritage of the Church. Some apostolic and prophetic functions flowing from persons directly commissioned by the risen Lord and acting in revelatory capacities seem clearly to belong to the foundational era of the Church. At the same time, some of those functions having to do with the revitalization, expansion, and nurture of the church ought to be present in every generation. We encourage all believers, led and filled by the Spirit, to allow themselves to be fully utilized as servants of the Lord, since all gifts are needed to edify and complete the body as well as to mobilize the body to reach the world. Then the purpose of all ministry gifts will be realized: ï °repare Godà°¥ople for works of service, so that the body of Christ may be built up until we all reach unity in the faith and in the knowledge of the Son of God and become mature, attaining to the whole measure of the fullness of Christè…°hesians 4:12, 13).

Practical Questions Regarding Apostles And Prophets
1. Does the International Pentecostal Church of Christ recognize present-day apostles and prophets?

The International Pentecostal Church of Christ recognizes ministers as Evangelists, Licensed, or Ordained. The work of districts and the General Conference is overseen by overseers and executives. Local churches appoint deacons. The International Pentecostal Church of Christ believes this practice is consistent with apostolic practice provided in the pastoral letters of 1 and 2 Timothy and Titus. The pastoral letters do not make provision for the appointment of apostles or prophets, nor does the Book of Acts indicate that provision for such was given in the churches established on the missionary journeys. The apostles appointed not apostles or prophets but elders (Acts 14:23). At the conclusion of the missionary journeys, Paul met with the elders of the Ephesian church (Acts 20:17-38). Clearly, elders are also given the functions of bishop (楲seer࡮d shepherd (᳴orਁcts 20:28; 1 Peter 5:2).

Thus, within the International Pentecostal Church of Christ, persons are not recognized by the title of apostle or prophet. However, many within the church exercise the ministry function of apostles and prophets. Apostolic functions usually occur within the context of breaking new ground in unevangelized areas or among unreached people. The planting and growth of the International Pentecostal Church of Christ worldwide could not have been accomplished unless apostolic functions had been present. In the Early Church, false apostles did not pioneer ministries; they preyed on ministries established by others. Prophetic functions occur when believers speak under the anointing of the Spirit to strengthen, encourage, or comfort (1 Corinthians 14:3). All prophecies are to be weighed carefully (1 Corinthians 14:29). A predictive prophecy may be true, but the prophet whose doctrine departs from biblical truth is false. A predictive prophecy that proves false leads to the conclusion that the person is a false prophet (Deuteronomy 18:19-22). (Since believers may alter their employment, relationships, and family life as a result of untested prophecy creating terrific upheaval in personal lives, there is no room for human error. Manipulating through the guise of hearing from God must be viewed as spiritual abuse.19)

Finally, it must be noted that titles are not as important as ministry itself. Too often a title is worn in an attitude of carnal pride. The title does not make the person or the ministry. The person with ministry makes the title meaningful. Jesus explicitly warned His disciples against engaging in the quest for titles (Matthew 23:8-12). He tells us, ﵠknow that the rulers of the Gentiles lord it over them, and their high officials exercise authority over them. Not so with you. Instead, whoever wants to become great among you must be your servant, and whoever wants to be first must be your slave just as the Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for many튉 (Matthew 20:25-28).

2. What is the implication for the local church in the current emphasis on apostles and prophets?

The Pentecostal and charismatic movements have witnessed various excessive or misplaced theological emphases over the years. We look with grave concern on those who do not believe in congregational church government, who do not trust the maturity of local church bodies to govern themselves under Scripture and the Spirit. Such leaders prefer more authoritarian structures where their own word or decrees are unchallenged.

In the current emphasis on Ephesians 4:11, verse 12 is being neglected: o prepare Godథople for works of service [i.e. ministry], so that the body of Christ may be built up.䨥 stress of the New Testament lies with every-believer ministry. The Protestant Reformation recaptured the biblical truth of the priesthood of all believers. The Pentecostal movement has spread like a fast-moving fire through the world because of the Spirit-gifted ministry of the entire body. The church must always remember that leadership gifts are not given for the exaltation of a few but for the equipping of all Godథople for ministry.3. Should International Pentecostal Church of Christ churches welcome the ministries of apostles and prophets?

We encourage our churches to give close heed to the following provision of the General Conference Bylaws: 䠩s known that many unreliable and unsafe teachers and preachers go about seeking entrance into churches without any recommendation; therefore, all pastors, workers, and leaders of churches shall make proper investigation regarding those persons not known to them and the platform be denied strangers until proper recommendation be forthcoming.聲ticle VI, Section 7) Since the use of non-IPCC ministers may bring confusion and problems detrimental to the Fellowship, it is recommended that IPCC use IPCC ministers whenever possible. This counsel is consistent with the oversight responsibility given to pastors (Acts 20:28-31) and leaders in the body of Christ (1 Timothy 5:22, 2 Timothy 4:3-5).

1Biblical citations are from the New International Version unless otherwise indicated.

2For simplicity, when Greek nouns and verbs are included they will usually be in the nominative singular and first person singular indicative.

3A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature, 3rd edition, rev. and ed., Frederick William Danker (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000), 122.

4Tractate Berakoth 5.5 and several other places in the Mishnah, the oldest portion of the Talmud. While the earliest rabbinical references date from the second century, it seems likely that the institution was much earlier. However, some scholars trace the concept to the end튉 language both of the Old Testament itself and secular Greek. See Colin Brown, gen. ed., The New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1975), ௳tle,튉 1:126-136.

5See the insightful study of C.G. Kruse in Ralph P. Martin and Peter H. Davids, eds., Dictionary of the Later New Testament & Its Developments (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1997), 76-82.

6It is frequently suggested that the Eleven erred in their selection of Matthias because Judasଡce was reserved for Paul. Matthias, it is noted, immediately passes into oblivion. However, there is no hint of criticism in the text and few of the Twelve are mentioned after chapter 1. Paulࡰostolic credentials are established independently of the Twelve by both Luke and Paul himself (cf. Acts 9:1-30, especially vv. 26-28; Gal. 1:15-24).

7A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature, 311.

8Some commentators identify the å°¥r-apostlesç©´h the Twelve; however, others suggest that the context more readily supports an identification with Jewish-Hellenistic teachers who came to Corinth with letters of introduction, perhaps from Jerusalem.

9See the discussion in E. Earle Ellis, Pauline Theology: Ministry and Society (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1989), 38.

10흥ssengers without extraordinary status.᠇reek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature, 122.

11Gordon D. Fee, The First Epistle to the Corinthians (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1987), 732.

12Colin Brown, gen. ed., The New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1975), 1:135.

13See, for example, James D.G. Dunn, The Theology of Paul the Apostle (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1998), 578-579.

14The Theology of Paul the Apostle, 574.

15A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature, 3rd edition rev. and ed. Frederick William Danker (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000), 1:44. See also Gerhard Kittel, ed., Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, trans. and ed. by Geoffrey W. Bromiley (Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1964), 1:447.

16New American Standard Version and New Revised Standard Version, 駮s of a true apostle.ﰾ

17A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature, 125.

18Roger Stronstad, The Prophethood of All Believers (Sheffield, UK: Sheffield Academic Press, 1999), 71-84.

19IPCC Addition

All Scripture quotations, unless otherwise indicated, are taken from the HOLY BIBLE: NEW INTERNATIONAL VERSIONΉVïpyrightṷ3, 1978, 1984 by International Bible Society. Used by permission of Zondervan Publishing House.

Permission to adapt position papers has been granted by the Assemblies of God to the International Pentecostal Church of Christ.   (Back to Top)


WHEREAS, Gifts of the Holy Spirit have been manifested by members of the historic Christian churches and such members have been allowed and sometimes encouraged to practice their beliefs within their respective denominations; and

WHEREAS, Some Charismatic groups have expressed an interest in fellowship and dialogue with the International Pentecostal Church of Christ; and

WHEREAS, We recognize that no existing organization fully represents the body of Christ; and

WHEREAS, We do not believe that for all true Christians – whether Pentecostal in doctrine and practice or not – to align themselves to an existing organization or a new one, will bring the unity of the Spirit; and

WHEREAS, We remind ourselves that relationships are built on agreements rather than on disagreements; and

WHEREAS, Excesses in practice of the Gifts of the Holy Spirit cannot be traced to any one segment of God’s Kingdom; and

WHEREAS, No corporate position of the International Pentecostal Church of Christ will meet the intricate circumstances of each local church and her situation;

THEREFORE, We the Policy and Finance Committee recommend that each local church scrutinize her own particular situation and set of circumstances and to evaluate her relationship and response to the Charismatic movement in true Christian love.   (Back to Top)


Whereas, the International Pentecostal Church of Christ has historically been supportive of the State of Israel, and

Whereas, a number of the denominations of the World Council of Churches are encouraging the economic divestment from the Israeli-Palestinian disputed territory, and

Whereas, the crusade to divest in Israel is a blatant discriminatory assault against Jews and their nation. The end result of such a one-sided view of the occupation, the recommendation for divesting from businesses that transact business with the Jewish State, is no more than a form of collective economic punishment for nearly half of the Jews of the world and the Arab citizens who live in Israel. The history of boycotts against Israel demonstrate harm done to Jewish people across the world, making divestiture an anti-Semitic act, and worsens the level of poverty among Jew and Palestinian alike, and

Whereas, organizations urging divestment have taken no comparable action against Palestinian violence and have demanded no real concessions from the Palestinians. At best, they presume a moral equivalency between the indiscriminate terrorist violence against civilian men, women, and children and the effort of a free nation to protect itself by the pursuit and punishment of those who commit terrorist acts, and

Whereas, Anti-Zionism is anti-Semitism. In singling out Israel, these organizations are opposing the only democracy in the region and encouraging extremist Islamic terror states and homicide bombers by rewarding the senseless slaughter of innocents. Such organizations stand by silently when leftist, anti-Christian, anti-Semitic, and anti-democracy nations like North Korea, Libya, Sudan, Cuba or Belarus commit untold horrors, and

Whereas, divestiture effectively blames the Israelis for Palestinian slaughter of civilians by asserting that the occupation is the “root” of terrorism. This ruse ignores the reality that the Palestinian leadership opted for murder and violence as the tactic of choice well before there was any occupation, and that the leaders of Hamas, Hezbollah and Islamic Jihad have vowed to continue murdering Jews after the occupation ends, as long as the Jewish state exists. Some resolutions effectively call for the end of Israel by insisting on “the right of Palestinian refugees to return to their homeland.” This is a well-known disguise for turning Israel from a Jewish state into an Arab state with a Palestinian majority, and

Whereas, Christians who take a stand against Israel have lost the historic perspective that God gave Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob and their seed, who make up the Jewish people, an eternal covenant in Genesis 13 and Genesis 15, that the land of Israel would be theirs forever.” To oppose Israel is opposing what God has called His own inheritance and those people He calls the apple of His eye. Christianity acknowledges its foundation in Israel and the Jewish race. It was the Jewish people who gave to Christianity the Word of God, the patriarchs Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob and the Image which gave us our Saviour, Jesus Christ.


That the International Pentecostal Church of Christ recognizes the Biblical and historic right of Jews to their land and urges its churches and Christians everywhere to disregard any effort which may weaken the nation of Israel, and

BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED While we acknowledge that Israel is a nation of people who are not perfect, we reiterate our support for the State of Israel to protect its right of self-governance and its existence which is the true target of extremists. We also submit that the existence of this democratic state in the region is not only good for Israel but also best for all people in the world.   (Back to Top)


Gambling is an activity which has gained a high level of acceptance in today’s society. Because of this fact, a Christian is pressed to view this activity in an effort to determine it’s acceptance or rejection in the life style of the Christ follower.

Gambling – What is it?
Gambling is any activity in which wealth changes hands, mainly on the basis of chance, involving notable risk on the part of the participant. It will be helpful to recognize three factors about gambling: 1) an incentive consisting of merchandise or money is offered, 2) the prize is acquired primarily on the basis of chance, 3) a payment of money or other consideration is required to become involved in the chance taken.

Gambling – What does the Bible say?
Obviously gambling involved little activity by God’s people in Bible days. Therefore it is not possible to find a direct command of Scripture such as, “Thou shalt not gamble.” Even though there is an absence of the direct command, there are numerous Scriptural principles that clearly indicate the evils of gambling.

  1. Gambling is evil because it is a disregard for Scripturally, responsible stewardship. (Parable of Talents – Matthew 25:14-30)
  2. Gambling is evil because it involves a chance of gain usually at the expense and suffering of others, thus failing to glorify God. (I Corinthians 10:31; Romans 6:16)
  3. Gambling is evil because it disregards the work ethic of Scripture. (Proverbs 12:11; II Thessalonians 3:10; Proverbs 28:20; 13:11)
  4. Gambling is evil because it is habit forming. (Galatians 5:23; Romans 6:16)

Gambling – What is  the Christian Responsibility?
Anyone who chooses to live a life that will bring glory to God, honor to His church, and conformity to the Scripture will refrain from gambling activity in any form. Whether the practice is designated to raise revenue for charity, church or state it is avoided by the serious follower of Christ.   (Back to Top)


BELIEVING that the Bible speaks out strongly in condemnation of sin and unrighteousness in all forms; and

BELIEVING that the Scriptures explicitly pronounce judgment on sexual deviance, namely, the book of Romans, chapter one, which refers to the guilt of mankind expressed in shameful worship, perverted passions and corrupted minds; and

BELIEVING that increased public tolerance of homosexuality can be attributed to various factors, including the acceptance of moral relativism and the contraceptive ethic which separates sex from any natural or necessary connection to procreation thus serving to promote the legitimization of homosexual activity; and

BELIEVING that whether the result of moral laxity, social acceptability or physiological change, the number of homosexuals seems to be increasing to the point that both men and women belong to this identity, now, according to published statistics in the literature, equal or exceed twenty percent (20%) of our total population; and

BELIEVING we must always be cognizant of the fact that all men regardless of their sins need God’s redeeming love as expressed in Jesus Christ;

The INTERNATIONAL PENTECOSTAL CHURCH OF CHRIST issues this statement of its basic position addressing this subject, and

AFFIRMS that the infallible Word of God condemns homosexuality and believes this means of consensual activity between members of the same sex is not open for debate;

CONDEMNS the role and influence of the Federal Judiciary in the legitimization of homosexual conduct in the American society;

CALLS UPON professionals within our community for expanded research on the subject and urges our churches to extend the healing ministry to individuals who seek deliverance from this perversion and desire to feel the expression of God’s love and grace as demonstrated by a caring body of believers.   (Back to Top)


A need has surfaced among us for a straight-forward, scripturally sound response to the ever increasing extreme position of the confession doctrine, either positive or negative, as it relates to the believers in Christ.

We as Pentecostals have, from the beginning, embraced what we term as the Life of Faith. It is the theme of our teaching and preaching. It is the message of our song. It is the expression of our worship.

The writer to the Hebrews points out that without faith it is impossible to please God. Then he describes faith as believing two things – that God is, and that He is the rewarder of them that diligently seek Him (Hebrews 11:6).

All the blessings which God has for His people are received through faith. Salvation (Acts 16:31), holiness of heart (Hebrews 12:14; Acts 26:18), baptism in the Holy Spirit (Acts 11:15-17), divine preservation (I Peter 1:5), inheritance of the promises which include healing and provision of material needs (Hebrews 6:12, Hebrews 1:35,36), and motivation for witnessing (II Corinthians 4:13) are among the many provisions of God’s grace.

Today, as in every generation, it is important for believers to be mindful of the example in Scripture of being strong in faith (Romans 4:20-24). They must be on guard against anything which would weaken or destroy faith. They need to pray for its increase (Luke 17:5) and constantly seek to cultivate it through reading the Word of Romans 10:17). The life of faith is the life of victory (I John 5:4).

Now then, the fact that these extremes are brought into view does not imply a rejection of the confession doctrine. It is a vital, Scriptural truth. The Bible teaches people are to confess their sins (I John 1:9). Confession of our faults (shortcomings and failures) to one another (James 5:16). They are to confess Christ (Matthew 10:32; Romans 10:9,10). They are to maintain a good confession (Hebrews 4:14;:23, ASV).

But when people, in emphasizing a doctrine, go beyond or contrary to the teachings of Scripture, they do not respect that doctrine. Rather, they bring reproach upon it. Therefore, it is necessary to focus attention on these extremes and point out their conflict with the pure Word of God.

Some inconsistencies of the teachings of the Confession Position –

Confession is described as affirming something which is both spoken and believed. The view goes further in that the confession is divided into the negative and the positive. The negative is to confess the undesirable, while the positive is to confess the pleasant. The implication simply is that the unpleasant can be avoided by refraining from negative confession. The desirable can be realized by positive confession. By this often spoken mind-set on the part of the believer he is assured of a complete set of desirable circumstances. He will be sick only if he confesses he is sick. This view would suggest that God wants all believers to wear 5th Avenue suits and drive Lincoln Continentals. They are to enjoy the best of everything while knowing or experiencing nothing about hardship or suffering. This position is contrary to the Scriptural mandate of II Timothy 3:12.

It is not difficult to understand why people would readily embrace this confession teaching, since it promises a life free from hardships and trouble. The problems show through however, when it simply doesn’t work. When believers take Scripture out of context and ignore the hermeneutical correlation necessary to support a doctrinal issue, the teaching comes apart at the seams.

When believers consider and study the faith life and the victorious life which God has made available for His followers, it is important to find a balanced Scriptural support system for his position doctrinally.

The conclusion then is that any doctrine worthy of the believers embrace must be in harmony with the total teaching of God’s Word. Any doctrine built on a lesser foundation will only do harm to the cause of Christ.

Most of the mainline Pentecostal denominations have published statements and position papers on this subject. One of the better and more detailed is a pamphlet published by the Assemblies of God, “The Believer And Positive Confession,” Gospel Publishing House, Springfield, Missouri 65802.   (Back to Top)


Since presidential and congressional elections this year will determine the political philosophy that will guide the nation for years to come; and

The character of the Federal Judiciary, especially the Supreme Court, will likely be shaped by the one occupying the Oval Office for the next four years; and

Issues of religious liberty and traditional values are at stake in this election; and Christ followers are called upon by their Lord to be the salt of the earth;

It therefore becomes imperative that Christians vote. The INTERNATIONAL PENTECOSTAL CHURCH OF CHRIST strongly urges its membership on both the clergy and local church level to register and vote in the upcoming national, state and local elections.